Hydrocarbon Compression

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Loss of Once-Through Thermosyphon Circulation

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There are several common causes of loss of circulation. The common symptoms of this problem are

• Inability to achieve normal reboiler duty.
• Low reflux drum level, accompanied by low tower pressure, even at a low reflux rate.
• Bottoms product too light.
• Reboiler outlet temperature hotter than the tower-bottom temperature.
• Opening the steam or hot-oil inlet heat supply valve does not seem to get more heat into the tower.

The typical causes of this problem are

• Bottom tray in tower leaking due to a low dry tray pressure drop
• Bottom tray, seal pan, or draw-off pan damaged
• Reboiler partially plugged
• Reboiler feed line restricted
• Reboiler design pressure drop excessive
• Tower-bottom liquid level covering the reboiler vapor return
nozzle

If the loss of circulation is due to damage or leakage inside the tower, one can restore flow by opening the start-up line (valve A shown in Fig. 7.2), and raising the liquid level. But if the reboiler is fouled, this will not help.

Once Through Thermosyphon Reboilers Loss of Once Through Thermosyphon Circulation

Figure 7.3 shows a once-through thermosyphon reboiler with a vertical baffle. This looks quite a bit different from Fig. 7.2, but processwise, it is the same. Note that the reboiler return liquid goes only to the hot side of the tower bottoms. Putting the reboiler return liquid to the colder side of the tower bottoms represents poor design practice. While most designers do it this way, it is still wrong.

Once Through Reboilers Loss of Once Through Thermosyphon Circulation

Written by Jack

October 5th, 2019 at 10:54 am

Posted in Reboiler

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Excessive Thermosyphon Circulation

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In a once-through reboiler, the liquid flow coming out of the reboiler is limited to the bottoms product. In a circulating reboiler, the liquid flow coming out of the reboiler can be extremely high. If the reboiler return nozzle is located too close to the bottom tray of the tower, the greater volume of liquid leaving the nozzle can splash against the bottom tray. This alone can cause the entire column to flood. The best way to stop this flooding is to lower the tower bottom level.

Sometimes higher rates of thermosyphon circulation are good. They help prevent fouling and plugging of the reboiler due to low velocity and dirt in the bottoms product and especially high vaporization rates. If the percentage of vaporization in a once-through reboiler is above 60 percent and dirt in the bottoms product is expected, then a circulating reboiler would be the better choice.

Written by Jack

March 29th, 2011 at 5:17 am